Deric Bownds



Chapter 1: Thinking About Thinking


How Do We Define Mind and Consciousness?


Introspection and Reflection

How Does Consciousness Emerge from a Brain/Body?

Defining the Problem

Assembling an Explanation

Organism and Environment

Where Is the "I"?


Part I - Evolving Mind

Chapter 2: Origins of Mind

Origins of Sensing and Acting

Simple Forms of Behavior

Communication Between Cells

Reflexes and Interneurons

Evolution of the Nervous System

Adaptations and Increasing Complexity

Biological Diversity

Origins of Minds, Perceptions, and Affect

The Simplest Form of Mind

Consciousness and the Evolution of Sensory Organs

Perceptions and New Behaviors


Chapter 3: Structures of Mind

Origins and Structures of the Vertebrate Nervous System

Layers of the Brain

The Cerebral Cortex

Modern Studies of Brain Function

Association of Functions with Different Brain Regions

Specializations of the Cerebral Hemispheres

Imaging the Activity of the Brain


Chapter 4: Primate Mind

The Question of Animal Consciousness

Transitions from Monkeys to Hominids

Upright Posture

Larger Brains

Stages in Hominid Emergence

Origins of Human Intelligence

Episodic Intelligence

The Great Apes: Selves and Others

Socialization and Other Skills Among the Chimps

Developing a Concept of Self

Awareness of the 'Mental States of Others


Chapter 5: Hominid Mind

The Mimetic Intelligence of Early Hominids

Kinesic Communication

Social Cohesion and Body Languages

Origins of Language

Internal Narrative

Language as an Adaptation

Evolution of Brain Structures Supporting Language

Language and the Evolutionary Tree

The Emergence of Modern Humans

Evidence for the Out-of-Africa Hypotheses

Co-evolution of Humans and Their Tools

The Origins of Mythic Intelligence

What Caused the Transition to Upper Paleolithic Culture?

Evolutionary Psychology---The Search for a Universal Mind

Genetic Arguments for an Evolved Psychology

Evolution of Cooperation

Evidence from Cross-Cultural Studies

Listing and Evaluating Human Universals

The Evolution of Ideas and Customs

The Concept of Memes

Evolution of Memes


Part II - Developing Mind

Chapter 6: Plastic Mind

An Outline of Brain Development

Origins of Plasticity

A Hierarchy of Developmental Circuits from Innate to Learned

The Wiring of Developing Brains

Pathways to the Cerebral Cortex

Plasticity in Forming the Visual Cortex

Experience Guides the Formation of Successful Connections

Adult Brains Can Change Their Nerve Connections

Expansion and Contraction of Cortical Areas

Cortical Plasticity and the Phantom Limb Phenomenon

Social Experience Can Alter Brain Structure

Limits of Brain Plasticity

Memory Is a Form of Brain Plasticity

Long-Term Memory

Models of Recognition and Memory

Procedural Memory

Olfactory Memories

The Sexual Brain---Plasticity Induced by Hormones

Hormonal Influences on Behavior

Hormonal Influences on Visuospatial Skills


Chapter 7: Minds and Selves

Stages in the Development of Human Selves

Effects of Rich Versus Impoverished Environments

The Role of Language

The Cerebral Hemispheres as Selves

Self Boundaries

Selves Are Modular Constructions

The Example of Musical Intelligence

How Many Selves to a Customer?

Selves, Genes, and Environments

Framing the Issue of Nature and Nurture

Physical Environments and Selves

Cultural Influences on Self

The Relativity of Thought Systems


Part III - Society of Mind

Chapter 8: Perceiving Mind

Ecology of Sensing and Acting

Perception Focuses on Change

Perception Is Filtered and Directed by Many Factors

Distinguishing Between Sensation and Perception

Perception of Spatial Relationships

Visual Systems

Self-Experiment: A Look at Vision and Its Muscular Correlates

Our Visual Brain

Visual Information Is Processed in Parallel Streams

Form, Motion, and Color

The "What" and "Where" Systems

Visual Pathways Outside the Cortex

Ensembles of Cells Encode Faces and Other Icons

Information Streams Flow Forward, Backward, and Sideways

A Binding Process Underlies Visual Perception

Neural Correlates of Visual Consciousness


Chapter 9: Acting Mind

Action---The Interface of Mind and Environment

A Movement-Oriented View of Mind and Consciousness

Kinesthetic Intelligence

Action Repertoires

Parallel Actions

Movement Exercises That Reveal Underlying Mechanisms

Neuronal Pathways Underlying Action

Movement Generation by Darwin Machines


Chapter 10: Emotional Mind

Defining Emotions

Emotions Are Evolutionary Adaptations

Emotions and the Physical Environment

Emotions and Social Exchange

Subcortical Systems Underlying Emotions

The Autonomic Background of Emotions

Brainstem Modulation of Attention and Appetite

Other Correlations of Chemistry and Emotional Behavior

Higher Levels of Emotional Mind

Emotional Mind as a Foundation of Rational Mind

Lateral Organization of Emotions

Emotional Responses Can Be More Rapid Than Reasoned Ones

Central Role of the Amygdala

Perception of Emotional and Cognitive Pathways

Facial Musculature and the Communication of Emotions

Misapplication of Ancestral Emotions---The Chronic Stress Response


Chapter 11: Linguistic Mind

The Language Instinct

Universal Language

The Case of Language as an Evolutionary Adaptation

The Learning of Language

Genetic Determinants of Language Ability

Language Development and Brain Structure

Language Development as Invention

Brain Mechanisms of Language

Multiple Language Areas in the Cortex

Language as Accessory to Other Fundamental Brain Mechanisms

Metaphor and the Construction of Language


Part IV - Modern Mind

Chapter 12: Conscious Mind

The Mind/Body Problem

Can the Problem of Consciousness Be Solved?

The Machinery of Awareness

The Brain's Time and Space: The Disappearance of "I"

Plastic Representations of Time and Space

The Futility of Asking "Where Does It All Come Together?"

Sleep and Other Altered States of Consciousness

Stages of Sleep and Dreaming

Mystical Experiences

Humor and Laughter

Neural Correlates and Models of Consciousness

Brain Structures Required for Conscious Awareness

Generating an Apparent "I"

Introspection and the Self System

Computer Metaphors


Chapter 13: Theoretic Mind

Emergence of the Modern Mind

Graphic Invention

Early Theoretic Societies

Merging of Individual Minds and External Memory Stores

Parallel Expression of Ancient and Modern Minds

Conflict of Paleolithic and Modern Minds

Paleolithic Adaptations

Mythic Components of Modern Intelligence

Addressing Pluralism

Ancient and Modern Minds in an Electronic Age

Future Mind

Teleological Schemes

The Theme of Encapsulation

The Evolution of Evolution

Summary---The Mind's Biology


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